How to Obtain an Accredited Information Technology Education

Information technology has infiltrated even the smallest of businesses, organizations, and schools. The skills needed to maintain, develop, and manage today’s technologically based computer software can be obtained by learning how to obtain an accredited information technology education. Students that are interested in this field need to seek out information and complete accredited college programs.

The technological resources associated with a business need to be constantly maintained. This includes creating accessibility, developing security, maintaining operation, and updating technology. Students can learn to perform these main functions inside higher educational training opportunities. Several areas of training are available and students can choose programs that best suit their career goal needs. An accredited education can be obtained when students complete a few necessary steps.

Training begins by researching what available degree programs can be completed. Students may have a high interest in information technology but specialization areas could make their career goals even more accessible. Students can enter training programs in areas that include:

  • Computer Information Science
  • Computer Information Systems
  • Information Security
  • Information Systems

Each of these areas falls under the category of information technology. Educational programs in information technology train students to understand the procedures performed to troubleshoot problem areas and evaluate the technological needs of a business. Computer information science programs give students the skills needed to correctly maintain computer networks and their databases. Computer information science focuses on the ability to develop networks and maintain a smoothly running environment for computer applications. Information security centers on teaching students to operate systems and perform any needed procedures to fix security breaches. Inside information systems training students are exposed to the skills needed to work with databases, network systems, and applications in order to keep them properly working.

Once students understand their available training options they can enter the second step, which is completing programs. This is the most important step because careers cannot be entered without a degree. Most areas offer several degree training opportunities. Schools offer programs from the associate’s to doctorate’s degree level. Career options will be directly affected by which degree level students decide to complete. Undergraduate programs offer students an overview of the industry with students starting to obtain advanced training at the end of bachelor’s degree programs. Training at the graduate degree level gives students a wider skill set. Courses that are taken inside information technology degree programs may include:

*Introduction to Information Technology

The history and the fast paced growth of the industry are studied. Students learn what industries use information technology and what tasks are conducted inside today’s professional workplace.

*Networking

Local area and wide area networks are examined to give students the knowledge of their capacity and limitations. Operating systems are explored and computer networking courses prepare students to obtain professional certification.

Working through the process of first exploring possibilities and then completing an accredited program that is approved by an agency like the Accrediting Commission of Career Schools and Colleges ( http://www.accsc.org/ ), will prepare students for careers. Join the professional workplace inside the continually growing industry of information technology by completing an accredited educational program.

DISCLAIMER: Above is a GENERIC OUTLINE and may or may not depict precise methods, courses and/or focuses related to ANY ONE specific school(s) that may or may not be advertised at PETAP.org.

Copyright 2010 – All rights reserved by PETAP.org.

Data Arteries – Enabling Business Strategy Through Information Technology

Regardless of size and industry, every enterprise is dependent upon information technology, and must have a strategy for how to employ it, especially as the internet becomes more pervasive. Information technology strategy is an enabler of business strategy. Not only must an enterprise manage relationships with its constituencies, but it must be able to connect with them electronically through data arteries – information supply, value, and demand chains. The information supply and demand chains are external; the information value chains are internal.

An information technology strategy is a special case functional strategy because every function in the enterprise requires electronic information delivery capabilities, and many require electronic process control also. In very large enterprises, strategy may be formulated at both the enterprise and organizational unit levels.

As websites such as Facebook, LinkedIn, MySpace, Plaxo, and Twitter become more pervasive in business, linkages between application systems and databases and social networking websites will be more important to enable constituencies to communicate both collaboratively and cooperatively. Just as email has become a primary method of communication between enterprises and their constituencies, so will social networking sites especially for advertising and ecommerce.

Business intelligence information can be used to identify opportunities for competitive advantage. However, information technology itself can be an enabler of competitive advantage, especially when there are opportunities to digitize products or deliver information products electronically. In such cases, business strategy is inseparable from information technology strategy.

Information technology comprises the analytical and operational application systems, databases, and technical infrastructure (hardware and networks) of an enterprise. Not all computer technologies are information based. Computer technology is used for process control applications in special purpose equipment. However, connectivity is essential as applications become more integrated. As digital construction and manufacturing practices develop through such technologies as computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM), the processes, the control of processes, and the products and/or services delivered by processes all rely upon information technology for connectivity.

For example, in the manufacturing industry, not only can design and manufacturing work be conducted through integrated CAD/CAM processes with electronic linkages to carriers, such as FedEx and UPS, but the entire project and process management activities can be monitored electronically from ideation to product delivery.

Through technologies such as electronic data interchange and electronic funds transfer, data and both digital and information products flow through information supply and demand chains in parallel to material supply and product and/or service demand chains. Within the enterprise, data flows through information value chains from supply chains and to demand chains.

Developing an information technology strategy document is essential for describing the requirements and for educating users because:

  • The impact is enterprise or organizational unit wide and other elements of strategy cannot be implemented without it
  • Administrative activities, such as legal, finance, and human resources, and operational activities, such as research and development, procurement, manufacturing or equivalent, distribution, marketing, sales, and service depend on information technology – analytical and operational systems support both administrative and operational functions
  • The time frames, expenditures, risks, and magnitude of efforts are usually larger and more complicated than other initiatives and must be clearly understood; information technology projects have a tendency to go out of control and under deliver – therefore, contingency plans are always necessary
  • The subject matter can be complicated if not well explained

Information technology strategy is usually packaged as a separate but related document to the strategic plan. It is deployed and executed through specific programs and projects that develop new or enhance or maintain existing application systems, databases, and technical infrastructure.

Large information technology development projects are usually cross-functional, and may be part of a broader initiative sponsored by multiple functions collectively. Broader initiatives that have information technology components include:

  • Market research and development
  • Product research and development
  • Infrastructure research and development for processes and information delivery

For example – for the development of a:

  • Digital manufacturing system integrating both research and development and sales and production activities (sponsors: Manufacturing and Sales functions – impact is on Research and Development, Procurement, Manufacturing, Distribution, Sales, and Service functions)
  • Financial, managerial, and regulatory accounting and reporting system (sponsor: Finance function – impact is enterprise wide)
  • Human resource management system (sponsor: Human Resources function – impact is enterprise wide)
  • Sales tracking system (sponsor: Sales function – impact is on all salespeople enterprise wide)

Some projects can be solely for the Information Technology function, in which case it is a customer of itself.

Steering committees should be established for major programs and projects representing the various impacted functions in order to resolve cross-functional barriers. Major programs should come under the review of a planning and policy committee at the enterprise level.

Information technology strategy formulation is a project in its own right at the enterprise or organizational unit level. Very large projects are grouped as a program of inter-related components under a program manager. Projects can be stand alone also. A single project can deliver one or more application systems and related databases and technical infrastructure, or multiple projects may be required depending upon complexity.

For example, when launching a new product, it may be necessary to conduct marketing, product, and infrastructure development projects that include the delivery of new systems, and upgrades to existing systems. However, if an addition to the product line is launched at a later time, a new project or set of projects may be required to enhance or maintain the current systems, or even develop new ones.

The work breakdown structure for downstream development, enhancement, and maintenance projects decomposes into planning, analysis, design, construction, implementation, and performance measurement phases. The performance measurement phase can be conducted in parallel with the other phases, and each must end with a performance review. A feedback loop to future planning activities must be established so that lessons learned from the past can be reflected in future initiatives.

Meeting the cost and schedule requirements is always a major consideration. Hence, “meeting the date” is a frequent requirement for project success. However, after implementation, the scope of what was delivered and its quality is usually remembered more than when. In anticipation of the need to make changes after implementation, an adaption project may be necessary to tune, standardize, and integrate the deliverables.

The planning phase is conducted at the enterprise, organizational unit, or program levels for one or more projects depending upon size and complexity. However, each application system and related databases and technical infrastructure is delivered through a project with distinct analysis, design, construction, and implementation phases. Each phase always begins with a detailed planning activity to ensure that resources are allocated appropriately. The work breakdown structure does not preclude the use of iterative methodologies within each phase for rapid application development and prototyping. Development, enhancement, and maintenance of websites can be very rapid, and heavily interactive with user involvement, when the appropriate tools are used.

Key questions and deliverables by information technology strategy project and downstream phases include:

Strategy project (enterprise and organizational unit levels):

Key questions:

  • How does information technology enable business strategy?
  • What are the investment priorities?

Deliverables include:

  • Information technology architecture (applications, data and databases, and technical infrastructure)
  • High level project phasing and plans

Planning phase (enterprise, organizational unit, and program levels):

Key questions:

  • What are the administrative functions’ systems and information needs?
  • What are the operational functions’ systems and information needs?
  • What are the priorities for the candidate analytical systems?
  • What are the priorities for the candidate operational systems?

Deliverables include:

  • Process models
  • Function models
  • Data models
  • Information models
  • Economic evaluation
  • Scope of analysis projects and schedules

Analysis phase (project level):

Key questions:

  • How do processes, functions, and systems fit together?
  • How do systems processes and functions relate to enterprise processes and functions?
  • How do systems processes and functions and enterprise processes and functions fit together?

Deliverables include:

  • Functional requirements
  • Economic evaluation
  • Scope of design projects and schedules

Design phase (project level):

Key questions (by system):

  • What are the system’s functional requirements?
  • What are the system’s technical requirements?
  • What is the total cost of ownership and benefits (tangible and intangible)?

Deliverables include (by system):

  • Application system specifications
  • Data and database specifications
  • Technical infrastructure specifications
  • Scope of construction project and schedule
  • Total cost of ownership/benefit analysis

Construction phase (project level):

Key questions (by system):

  • Is the system being constructed according to design?
  • If not, what change orders are required, and why?

Deliverables include (by system):

  • Tested application system and interfaces, databases, and technical infrastructure
  • Trained users

Implementation phase (project level):

Key questions (by system):

  • What are the costs and schedule relative to plan?
  • What is the scope relative to plan?
  • What is the quality relative to plan
  • When will the benefits be realized relative to plan?
  • What adjustments for tuning, standardization, and integration are required relative to plan?
  • What are the current anticipated enhancement requests?
  • What are the current anticipated maintenance requests?
  • What are the lessons learned for the future?

Deliverables include (by system):

  • Working application system and interfaces, databases, and technical infrastructure
  • List of enhancement requests
  • List of maintenance requests
  • Performance measurement report

As enterprises become more dependent upon the internet for connectivity with constituencies, it is essential to develop, enhance, and maintain the information technology strategy on an ongoing basis. The strategy must emphasize connectivity through the data arteries as digital and information products become more pervasive.

Formulating information technology strategy is an enterpriship (entrepreneurship, leadership, and management) competency.

Advantages of Information Technology

What is Information Technology

Information technology is the use and application of the computer system to process, manage and distribute information. Use of IT in this context involves both the hardware and software components.

Some major advantages of Information Technology in various areas are listed below:

Speed and Accuracy in information Processing

With the use of IT more work can be done by individuals, businesses, services and government organisations. Function enhancement programs such as word processors, database programs and spreadsheets can get work done in less time with increased accuracy and efficiency.

Global Social Interaction

IT has made global social and cultural interaction very simple. This is evident with the emergence and success of social networking websites, such as Facebook and Twitter. More so, the use of information technology has eliminated language barriers with technologies such as language translators.

Entertainment

The introduction and use of high tech applications and gadgets such as iTunes, iPod and iPone has been revolutionary. Downloading, buying, playing and organising, music, videos, movies and TV shows has been made super easy and accessible. The gallant advancement of information technology through history puts the world in your palm with technologies such as iPad and Amazon Kindle.

Communication

The effect of information technology on universal communication is phenomenal. Telecommunication has gone beyond the use of basic technologies. With the advancement of the Internet and technologies such as VoIP (Voice over IP), organizations, businesses and individuals can communicate any time from different parts of the world through video and voice calls, web conferencing, seminars and virtual meetings.

Economic Advancement

A major step to global economic advancement is the removal of distance and time barriers brought about by the application of information technology to buying and selling of goods and services (e-commerce). E-commerce gave room for tiny, small and big business players to emerge. Interconnection of businesses is made painless. Thousands of local, national and international businesses and enterprises now have what is referred to as ‘web presence’ and can now reach wider audience.

Education

Education has gone far beyond the use of bricks and mortal classrooms or traditional blackboards. The world is now in the era of e-learning, using technologies such as VLEs (Virtual Learning Environments). Students can have access to all teaching materials and resources online; engage in virtual classrooms real time or asynchronously.

Health

The use of IT has led to an overall improvement in quality, safety and efficiency in the health care delivery system. The health care sector is positively impacted by the use of electronic health records, virtual healthcare team technologies, telemedicine, e-health grids and various specialist health care information systems.

Information technology had brought phenomenal changes to all aspect of life. The positive impact has been global and the change continues to grow exponentially. However, the disadvantages can not be ignored. A major menace brought about by IT is security and drastic reduction in privacy.